DR Feinberg, LM DeBruine, BC Jones & AC Little (2008). Hormonal contraceptive use and correlated preferences for vocal and facial masculinity. Human Behavior and Evolution Society in Kyoto University, Japan. June 2008.

For evolution to sustain multiple ornaments of the same underlying quality, each ornament must (a) express the quality to similar degrees; and (b) be used by perceivers in similar fashion. Research has demonstrated that men with attractive voices tend to have attractive faces supporting (a). Here we provide evidence that both men and women who prefer masculine faces also prefer masculine voices in support of (b). These effects were found to be modified by hormonal contraceptives such that correlations between preferences for voice and face masculinity were not present in users of hormonal contraceptives, and vocal masculinity preferences of these women are greatly reduced in comparison to naturally cycling women. These results suggest that indeed voice pitch and facial masculinity are not only expressed to similar degrees, but that they are used in a fashion similar enough that they may qualify as multiple ornaments of the same underlying quality.

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