The optimal sexual strategies for men and women are strikingly different and frequently in direct conflict. This conflict may have driven the evolution of behaviors that counter the other sexís optimal strategy. Because womenís sexual strategies vary according to their ovulatory status, it may be beneficial for menís counter-strategies to also be sensitive to cues of womenís ovulatory status. This chapter reviews empirical evidence that womenís sexual behavior and preferences for masculine men change systematically during the menstrual cycle and that men possess adaptations that may have evolved to counter these cyclic shifts in womenís mate preferences. We also discuss the empirical evidence for cues of womenís ovulatory status that might act as triggers for these counter-strategies and the possibility that women might alter their behavior to minimize the effectiveness of such triggers. Collectively, these findings highlight the possibility that the conditional nature of womenís sexual strategies can drive equally complex counter-strategies in men.
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