Recent research on menís dominance perception (Watkins et al., 2010 Behavioral Ecology; Watkins et al., 2010 Personality & Individual Differences) suggests that low-dominance men are more likely to attribute high dominance to men displaying masculine facial and vocal characteristics than high-dominance men are, potentially because low-dominance individuals will incur greater costs if they underestimate the dominance of masculine rivals. In the current studies, we investigated the relationship between indices of womenís own dominance and their perceptions of other womenís facial dominance. Womenís own height and scores on a dominance questionnaire were negatively correlated with the extent to which they attributed dominance to women displaying masculine facial characteristics. In follow-up studies, we observed similar individual differences when (1) women separately judged other womenís social and physical dominance, suggesting individual differences in womenís dominance perceptions generalize across two different types of dominance judgment, and (2) we assessed the perceiversí dominance indirectly using a questionnaire that measures the extent to which women view interactions with other women in competitive terms. These findings present new evidence that low-dominance individuals are more likely to attribute dominance to other women displaying masculine characteristics than are high-dominance individuals and suggest that competition and conflict among women may have shaped systematic variation in womenís dominance perception.
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