Exposure, or adaptation, to faces or voices biases perceptions of subsequent stimuli, causing them to appear more normal if they are similar to exposed stimuli. Studies also suggest cross-modal effects on perception across sound and vision, although evidence is inconsistent for adaptation across modality. We examined adaptation effects within and across voices and faces and whether adaptation crosses stimulus sex. We exposed participants to sex-typical or sex-atypical stimuli and measured the perceived normality of subsequent stimuli. Exposure to female faces or voices altered perceptions of subsequent female stimuli and these adaptation effects crossed modality; exposure to voices influenced judgments of faces and vice versa. We also found that exposure to female stimuli did not influence perception of subsequent male stimuli. Our data demonstrate that recent experience of faces and voices changes subsequent perception and that representation may not be modality dependent. Additionally, both modality-specific and cross-modality effects appear to be relatively sex-specific.
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