Previous research has found that men, compared to women, are more distressed by a female partner's sexual infidelity, whereas women tend to be more distressed by a male partner's emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists have related this observation to the differential adaptive strategies of men and women. However, this explanation was contested by the "double-shot" hypothesis (DeSteno & Salovey, 1996) proposing that differential reactions to infidelity are solely driven by individuals' expectations concerning their partners' behaviour. Thus, shared stereotypes about men and women are what drive the sex difference in jealousy. As this hypothesis should explain the behaviours of all types of people, the present study investigates this hypothesis in a sample of heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual men and women (n = 537). Results showed that only heterosexual men were most concerned about their partners' sexual infidelity whereas all other groups found their partner's emotional infidelity more distressing. Also, there was no support for the double-shot hypothesis. That is, with few exceptions, expectations of a partner's behavior did not predict jealousy response.
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